Clinical Pharmacy 2017 welcomes professional chemists, researchers, pharmacists, professors, scientific communities, delegates, students, business professionals and executives from all over the world to attend the ‘7th World Congress on Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice’ during December 07-09, 2017 at Rome, Italy which includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions with the theme “Education, Development and Embodying the Principles of Clinical Pharmacy: For Future Success
Biopharmaceutics is the study of the chemical and physical properties of drugs and the biological effects they produce. Drugs are substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the discipline that describes the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs in patients requiring drug therapy. Clearance is the most important pharmacokinetic parameter because it determines the steady-state concentration for a given dosage rate. The volume of distribution is a proportionality constant that relates the amount of drug in the body to the serum concentration. Pharmacodynamics is the study of the relationship between the concentration of a drug and the response obtained in a patient. Originally, investigators examined the dose–response relationship of drugs in humans but found that the same dose of a drug usually resulted in different concentrations in individuals because of pharmacokinetic differences in clearance and volume of distribution. Toxicokinetics is an essential step in clinical toxicology. The methodology is based on the same parameters which are used in pharmacokinetics. The mechanism of toxicity is an essential item in the interpretation of toxicokinetic data. By the exact knowledge of toxicokinetics, it is possible to determine for each toxicon, the relevant parameters which will be of use in clinical practice. The dose–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure to an after a certain exposure time.
Clinical Drug Development and Therapeutics:
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. Drug design often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target. The drug is most commonly an organic small molecule that activates or inhibits the function of a biomolecule such as a protein, which in turn results in a therapeutic benefit to the patient. In the most basic sense, drug design involves the design of molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. The drug is the application of known drugs and compounds to treat new indications. A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use. The term may also refer to any drug marketed under its chemical name without advertising, or to the chemical makeup of a drug rather than the brand name under which the drug is sold. In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
Clinical Pharmacy: Activities and Prescriptions:
is a health science discipline in which pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes medication therapy and promotes health, and disease prevention. The pharmacist verifies the legality, safety and appropriateness of the prescription order, checks the patient medication record before dispensing the prescription (when such records are kept in the pharmacy), ensures that the quantities of medication are dispensed accurately, and decides whether the medication should be handed to the patient, with appropriate counselling, by a pharmacist. The pharmacist can participate in arrangements for monitoring the utilization of drugs, such as practice research projects, and schemes to analyze prescriptions for the monitoring of adverse drug reactions. Molecular profiling of tumors promises to advance the clinical management of cancer, but the benefits of integrating molecular data with traditional clinical variables have not been systematically studied. Here we retrospectively predict patient survival using diverse molecular data (somatic copy-number alteration.
General Clinical pharmacology:
Clinical pharmacology is the science of drugs and their clinical use. It is underpinned by the basic science of pharmacology, with added focus on the application of pharmacological principles and quantitative methods in the real world. Clinical pharmacology connects the gap between medical practice and laboratory science. The main objective is to promote the safety of prescription, maximize the drug effects and minimize the side effects. It is important that there be an association with pharmacists skilled in areas of drug information, medication safety and other aspects of pharmacy practice related to clinical pharmacology. An adverse effect may be termed a "side effect" when judged to be secondary to a main or therapeutic effect. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic or antagonistic or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own. Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery. It includes pre-clinical research on microorganisms and animals, filing for regulatory status, such as via the United States Food and Drug Administration for an investigational new drug to initiate clinical trials on humans, and may include the step of obtaining regulatory approval with a new drug application to market the drug.
General Dispensing Pharmacy and Pharma Practice:
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. There are many chemicals with pharmacological properties but need special measures to help them achieve therapeutically relevant amounts at their sites of action. A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. When two or more ingredients of a prescription are mixed together the undesired change that may take place in the physical, chemical or therapeutic properties of the medicament is termed as incompatibility. The branch of pharmacology and therapeutics concerned with a determination of the doses of remedies; the science of dosage.
Hospital Pharmacy& Health practice:
Hospital pharmacies are pharmacies usually found within the premises of a hospital. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized and investigational medications (medicines that are being studied, but have not yet been approved), than would be feasible in the community setting. Hospital pharmacies typically provide medications for the hospitalized patients only, and are not retail establishments. The practice of pharmacy that responds to the needs of the people who use the pharmacists’ services to provide optimal, evidence-based care. To support this practice it is essential that there be an established national framework of quality standards and guidelines. Pharmacy teams ensure public health services and interventions are evidence based as far as possible, in order to ensure consistency, high quality services and optimum outcomes for population health from public health services and interventions delivered through pharmacy. New service developments are evaluated to ensure they are clinically effective, provide efficient use of resources, support health literacy and deliver good outcomes, especially for people experiencing health inequalities or issues with health literacy.
Pharmacoepidemiology borrows from both pharmacology and epidemiology. Thus, pharmacoepidemiology is the bridge between both pharmacology and epidemiology. Pharmacology is the study of the effect of drugs and clinical pharmacology is the study of the effect of drugs on clinical humans. Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology and medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations. Molecular pathological epidemiology is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology. It is defined as "epidemiology of molecular pathology and heterogeneity of the disease. Pathology and epidemiology share the same goal of elucidating etiology of disease, and MPE aims to achieve this goal at molecular, individual and population levels. Pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy (the condition that this definition only applies with the doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological disorder function was excluded with the latest amendment of the applicable legislation. Medication errors such as overdose, and misuse and abuse of a drug as well as drug exposure during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are also of interest, even without an adverse event, because they may result in an adverse drug reaction.
Pharmacotoxicology entails the study of the consequences of toxic exposure to pharmaceutical drugs and agents in the health care field. The field of pharmacotoxicology also involves the treatment and prevention of pharmaceutically induced side effects. Biotransformation is the chemical modification made by an organism on a chemical compound. If this modification ends in mineral compounds like CO2, NH4+, or H2O, the biotransformation is called mineralisation. Biotransformation means chemical alteration of chemicals such as nutrients, amino acids, toxins, and drugs in the body. It is also needed to render nonpolar compounds polar so that they are not reabsorbed in renal tubules and are excreted. Biotransformation of xenobiotics can dominate toxicokinetics and the metabolites may reach higher concentrations in organisms than their parent compounds. On-target toxicity is also referred to as mechanism-based toxicity. This type of adverse effect that results from pharmaceutical drug exposure is commonly due to interactions of the drug with its intended target. Adverse effects at targets other than those desired for pharmaceutical treatments often occur with drugs that are nonspecific. If a drug can bind to unexpected proteins, receptors, or enzymes that can alter different pathways other than those desired for treatment, severe downstream effects can develop. Bio activation is a crucial step in the activity of certain pharmaceuticals. Often times, the parent form of the drug are not the active form and it needs to be metabolized in order to produce its therapeutic effects. In other cases, bio activation is not necessarily needed for drugs to be active and can instead produce reactive intermediates that initiate stronger adverse effects than the original form of the drug.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for the market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules. Discovery is the identification of novel active chemical compounds, often called "hits", which are typically found by assay of compounds for a desired biological activity. Initial hits can come from repurposing existing agents toward new pathologic processes, and from observations of biologic effects of new or existing natural products from bacteria, fungi, plants, etc. In addition, hits also routinely originate from structural observations of small molecule "fragments" bound to therapeutic targets (enzymes, receptors, etc.), where the fragments serve as starting points to develop more chemically complex forms by synthesis. Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions. Organic molecules often contain a higher level of complexity than purely inorganic compounds, so that the synthesis of organic compounds has developed into one of the most important branches of organic chemistry. Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into efficient computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids the structure–activity relationship (SAR) is the relationship between the chemical or 3D structure of a molecule and its biological activity. The analysis of SAR enables the determination of the chemical groups responsible for evoking a target biological effect in the organism.
Role of Pharmacists & Research in the Hospital:
Pharmacists play a vital role in the health care system through the medicine and information they provide. While responsibilities vary among the different areas of pharmacy practice, the bottom line is that pharmacists help patients get well. The principal goal of pharmaceutical care is to achieve positive outcomes from the use of medication which improves patients’ quality of life with minimum risk. Pharmacists strive to: Cure disease; Eliminate or reduce symptoms; Arrest or slow a disease process; Prevent disease; Diagnose disease; and Alter physiological processes for desirable result in the patient’s health. Pharmacy practice research, also known as pharmacy research, is a specialty field within the wider area of health services research, which focuses on examining how and why people access pharmacy services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care. Its aim is to support evidence-based policy and practice decisions where pharmacists are employed or medicines are prescribed or used.
Therapeutic drug monitoring:
Therapeutic drug monitoring is a branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood. Its main focus is on drugs with a narrow therapeutic window, i.e. drugs that can easily be under- or overdosed. TDM aims at improving patient care by individually adjusting the dose of drugs for which clinical experience or clinical trials have shown it improved outcome in the general or special populations. In medicine, monitoring is the observation of a disease, condition or one or several medical parameters over time. It can be performed by continuously measuring certain parameters by using a medical monitor and/or by repeatedly performing medical tests. The therapeutic index is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity. The related terms therapeutic window or safety window refer to a range of doses which optimize between efficacy and toxicity, achieving the greatest therapeutic benefit without resulting in unacceptable side-effects or toxicity. The therapeutic of a drug is the range of drug dosages which can treat disease effectively without having toxic effects. Medication with a small therapeutic window must be administered with care and control, frequently measuring blood concentration of the drug, to avoid harm.
Importance & Scope:
Clinical pharmacy is a branch of pharmacy which deals with the patient care and medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease inhibition. The pharmacist works in management with the doctors for the patient healthcare. Clinical pharmacists have wide education in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and clinical sciences. Clinical Pharmacy consists of all the services accomplished by pharmacists practicing in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes, home-based care services, clinics and any other setting wherever medicines are prescribed and used. The term "clinical" does not necessarily suggest an action implemented in a hospital setting. It defines that the type of activity is connected to the health of the patients. This suggests that community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists both can accomplish clinical pharmacy activities.
The scope of clinical pharmacy:
- Drug Information
- Drug Utilization
- Drug Evaluation and Selection
- Medication Therapy Management
- Formal Education and Training Programs
- Disease State Management
Apply new knowledge to develop, Evaluate and broadcast innovative health care delivery models. Pharmacy education models Health policy Generate and spread knowledge to advance patient care. Medication safety Disease prevention and treatment Healthcare cost-effectiveness and quality Pharmacy education
Major Pharmacy Associations around the Globe:
- International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP)
- International Pharmaceutical Students' Federation (IPSF)
- European Association of Employed Community Pharmacists in Europe (EPhEU)
- European Pharmaceutical Union (EPU)
- Pharmaceutical Group of the European Union (PGEU)
- Australian College of Pharmacy
- Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
- The Pharmacy Guild of Australia
- The Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia
- Canadian Pharmacists Association
- Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists
- Chinese Pharmaceutical Association
- Danish Association of Pharmaconomists
- Indian Pharmacist Association
- Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland
- The Pharmaceutical Association of Israel
- Kuwait Pharmaceutical Association
- Pharmaceutical Association of Mauritius
- Pharmaceutical Society Of New Zealand
- Norwegian Pharmacy Association
- National Pharmacy Association
- Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland
- Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS)
- American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)
- American Pharmacists Association (APhA)
- American Society for Pharmacy Law
- American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP)
- American Society of Consultant Pharmacists Foundation
- American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)
- Professional Compounding Centers of America
- American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP)
- Roseman University of Health Sciences
- College of Southern Nevada
- Desert Research Institute
- Great Basin College
- Nevada State College
- Truckee Meadows Community College
- University of Nevada, Las Vegas
- University of Nevada, Reno
- Western Nevada College
- National University
- Sierra Nevada College
- Touro University Nevada
List of some major companies:
- Merck & Co.
- Johnson & Johnson
- Gilead Sciences
- Bristol-Myers Squibb
- Novo Nordisk
- Boehringer Ingelheim
List of Hospitals:
- Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Hamburg, Germany - Hamburg, DE
- Anadolu Medical Center - Istanbul, Turkey - Anatolia Poplar District, TR
- Medical Center Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain - Barcelona, ES
- Klinik Hirslanden, Zurich - Zürich, CH
- The American Hospital Of Paris - Paris, FR
- Privatklinik Döbling, Vienna - Vienna, AT
- Private Hospital Rudolfinerhaus, Vienna, Austria - Vienna, AT
- University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland